Frankincense Extracts and Cancer Treatments Revisited

Frankincense has been used medicinally for a very long time.

We have discussed its historical value in a previous post.

We have also discussed reports of the use of Frankincense extracts for the treatment of brain tumors. 

Since those postings I have made a concerted effort to study the possibility that Frankincense can be used to treat cancers in general, and brain tumors in particular.

Although I am still not an expert, I think I have learned enough to talk intelligently about the possible mechanisms by which extracts of Boswellia serrata (aka ‘Indian Frankincense’) and Boswellia carterii (aka Boswellia sacra and Boswellia carterii Birdw) might impact cancers and tumors.

To begin with, there are many species other than Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii, and each species and subspecies has its own unique set of chemical constituents within its resin. Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii seem to have been the most intensely studied, and are the species for which the anti-cancer claims have been made. Their resins’ chemical compositions seem to be similar in nature, although I get the impression that Boswellia carterii’s resin contains higher concentrations of the chemicals of interest relative to cancer treatments than Boswellia serrata’s resin. This observation probably isn’t important if you’re using one of the standardized extracts. But, it probably is important if you’re using unprocessed resin powder.

For those who of you who are interested in studying the differences between the composition of different Boswellia species’ resins, the report found at this link is an extremely comprehensive report of the results of a study of this topic. ( ) It is a copy of a Dissertation written by Simla Basar. It is extremely well done, and quite comprehensive. It is also a very, very large pdf file – and, yes… I have read it from cover to cover.

In summary:

There are a very large number of compounds found in extracts from these two species of Boswellia.

In Europe the Boswellia carterii species seems to be emphasized – but an extract that I think comes from Boswellia serrata and which is referred to as H15 is reported to be approved as a prescription drug for treating brain tumor edema. Elsewhere, Boswellia serrata seems to be the species that most extract products come from.

The chemical compounds that are proposed most often as the agents behind the Boswellia species’ anticancer effects are the Boswellic Acids. More specifically, the Beta Boswellic Acids. Even more specifically, the one that is most talked about is AKBBA or AKBA (acetyl keto beta boswellic acid).

There are several other significant boswellic acids that exhibit anti-cancer effects, but AKBBA appears to be the most potent boswellic acid in this regard. It also appears to be the least affected by liver metabolism, although it is reported to have lower than expected absorbtion from the gastro-intestinal tract.

The predominant theories relative to the effects of the Boswellic Acids on cancer cells fall into five general categories.

– First, there is no doubt that these substances exert a very powerful effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathways – causing profound reductions in inflammation and edema formation around brain tumors.

– Second, there seems to be an effect upon cancer cells that approximates that of chemotherapy agents that are known as topoisomerase inhibitors ( – US Patent 5,064,823).

– Third, it is also quite evident that these compounds are capable of inhibiting the levels of leukocytic elastase – thus possibly reducing metastasis ( – US Patent 2010/0166670 A1).

– Fourth, it has been reported that AKBBA is capable of inhibiting tumor growth via suppression of angiogenesis (

– Finally, it has been reported that Boswellic Acids can trigger cancer cell apoptosis via a caspase-8 activation pathway (

There are other extract constituents that have been reported to have anti-cancer effects. (tirucallic acids – OTA, alphaTA, and betaTA) You can read more about these compounds in the dissertation by Aidee Constanza Estrada found at this web address. ( ) Again, it’s extremely well done… and a very large pdf file – and, yes… I’ve read this one front to back also.

All of these effects appear to have been demonstrated at doses that are achievable with oral dosing in humans.

It is my belief that there are other compounds that will be discovered as research continues, and that the mechanisms for the current effects will undoubtedly be found to be much more complex than what is currently proposed.

For a good survey of current thinking and new thoughts about the mechanisms you can take a look at this article.

Boswellic Acids: Biological Actions and Molecular Targets. Daniel Poeckel and Oliver Werz. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2006, 13, 3359-3369. I can’t provide a link to a free copy, as it is one of those articles you must pay for. However, any major university’s research librarians will surely be able to get you a free copy – or perhaps the librarian at a large hospital’s medical library can get one for you.

The bottom line of this analysis is that there does appear to be a significant body of knowledge that supports the reports of positive results when Boswellia serrata or Boswellia carterii extracts are used to treat cancers.

Additionally, I would like to put forth this thought for those who are thinking of using Boswellia Extracts to treat cancerous conditions. Although there is a push to emphasize AKBBA content, it is possible that powerful anti-cancer compounds are being inadvertantly removed from the extracts as the extract manufacturers pursue enrichment of AKBBA content.

More disturbingly, it is also reported that some manufacturers may actually be stripping out the more useful Beta Boswellic Acids, thus marketing a product that would have reduced anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.

I consider this criminal and believe that the companies that do this should be prosecuted and put out of business.

In the meantime, it is buyer beware.

I have only studied two manufacturers’ products. I strongly believe one of them provides high quality product, and I believe it is probable that the other company’s product is of a high quality… with the constituents cancer patients would be looking for retained within it.

If you’re looking for a good product I’d take a look at the products produced by Sabinsa ( –

(Boswellin and Dr Pai’s Bosmeric SR

or Avesta’s product –


You will find the Sabinsa site full of useful data. Dr Pai’s site is also a wealth of information, and may be better organized.

I particularly admire Dr Pai’s product. It’s obviously manufactured by Sabinsa (you can find clinical trial data on his site that lists the Sabinsa product along with his product). It combines enriched AKBBA content in half of the tablet with enhanced bioavailability tumeric extracts and ginger extracts in the other half of the tablet. The curcumin extract absorption data that Sabinsa reports for their formulation is quite impressive. I do not believe that the ginger extracts are as important, as previous research has shown that gingerols do not survive the journey through the liver very well. I am also a bit concerned about the absorbtion of all the boswellic acids… and wonder if the other anti-cancer compounds may have been stripped out in pursuit of concentration of the AKBBA levels. It must be understood that this product is actually targeted at patients with inflammatory disease conditions… and it’s very pricy. I’ve recommended its use in tandem with one of the more conventional products that I’ve listed above when asked for a recommendation. (For example, I am aware of patients who take either two Avesta tablets or four Swanson’s Boswellin 200mg boswellic acid capsules three times a day along with one of Dr Pai’s tablets twice a day – note: the Boswellin capsules seem to upset stomachs at this dose, I’ve suggested taking two capsules every couple of hours up to a total of 12 when asked for a solution to this problem.)

Having said this, I want to emphasize that I have NO affiliations – financial or otherwise – with either of these two companies. I’m just sharing what I have come to believe so far relative to their products.

I have NO way of knowing that my beliefs about these two companies and their products are correct. I have performed NO testing to prove or disprove the content of these products. I do believe that the data at Sabinsa’s website indicates a strong dedication to understanding their product and producing high quality. I have also had communications with people in the Avesta organization whose truthful answers to a couple of tough questions that I’ve asked indicate to me that they’re trying to make a good product. They could have easily lied to me.. I don’t think they did.

Again, talk to your physician before you change your medication regimen or try new medications. These are powerful substances. I’m a pharmacist…. and we all know I’m nuts anyway. I’m providing this information to help you and your physician save your or your loved ones’ lives. Remember, Pharmacists Pharmacist…. Physicians Physician… and Cancer Patients and their loved ones search for a cure every day. It’s important. Good luck.

Is It Possible That Aspirin, NSAIDS and COX2 Inhibitors Can Be Used To Treat Cancers?

The scientific journals are full of articles discussing the use of NSAIDs, COX2 Inhibitors, and Aspirin to kill cancer cells in the lab. There are also many articles talking about the use of these agents for cancer chemoprevention and for people who already have cancer. In fact, several are already cleared by the FDA as treatment options for cancer chemoprevention and for use with traditional treatment regimens.

However, the general consensus of all the journal articles is that these agents aren’t actually useful as cancer treatment and/or suppression agents because you can’t safely get their concentrations high enough in the blood.

I do not believe this is true. In fact, although I am uncertain of the reliability of being able to safely impact tumors that reside on the brain side of the blood-brain barrier, I strongly believe that you can achieve sufficient plasma concentrations.

Although a knowledgeable physician/pharmacist team is needed – it is probable that most patients can safely achieve blood concentrations that should be adequate to impact the growth of several different cancer types.

I explain this belief in the excerpt pasted below. It’s from the protocol you can find at this link:

NF-Kappa B is one of the pathways that this protocol targets. Many NSAIDs are capable of impacting this pathway, and of inhibiting cancer cell growth and/or inducing apoptosis. But, translation of this property to humans is challenging because it is difficult to safely achieve free plasma concentrations that are sufficient to elicit the desired effect because of drug metabolism, associated toxicities, and plasma protein binding.

Salicylate based NSAIDs (aspirin and salsalate) are pharmacokinetically unique in that their metabolism and plasma protein binding is saturable – thus enabling the generation of significant free plasma levels. It is known that the levels that are safely achievable are sufficient to impact NF-Kappa B as the result of studies into their ability to shut down cellular crosstalk from the NF-Kappa B pathway to insulin receptors.1-7, 63-64

The selective-COX2-inhibitor celecoxib also appears to be capable of impacting NF-Kappa B, but it shares the metabolism and protein binding limitations the NSAIDs have. However, it is capable of impacting this pathway at much lower concentrations than the NSAIDs do. It appears probable that this is the basis for its ability to impact colorectal adenomas and adenomatous polyps at twice daily 400 mG doses.13, 15, 21 Despite an impressive body of evidence supporting its ability to impact cancer growth and propagation it was not chosen as the primary agent for NF- Kappa B impact because of its questionable status relative to cardiovascular events and physicians’ reluctance to use it because of those questions.

Remember – you must ALWAYS have a physician’s support to try these ideas. I’m just a pharmacist – not a physician, and I’m providing information for you to review and discuss with your physician.

New Age Biomed – Dr John Boik

In a previous post – in fact, one of the first I made on this site – I talked about a book that provided comprehensive information about natural products and cancer treatments and chemoprevention.

You can find that post at .

Well, John Boik has gone on to get his PhD – and has started a new organization that is focusing on discovering natural product based anti-cancer strategies using sophisticated screening and analysis tools.

You should take a look at his organization’s new site… I think you’ll find it interesting. 

And, if you can afford it I recommend you drop them a donation.

More Low Dose Naltrexone Info – For Kristal

We’ve talked about Low Dose Naltrexone and its possible usefulness for cancer prevention or treatment. and 

But, we haven’t really talked very much about its use for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases – e.g. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), Parkinsons, Crohns Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, etc….

And, there are some who think it might be useful for the treatment of autism.

Additionally, there are several sites that have put a lot of work into trying to get the word out about the usefulness of this medication protocol.

As I’ve continued to research this topic I’ve run across several that I think would be good places for people to look for more information.

So, here are some other links that I think are valuable sources of information.

The link is a very good place to go to see video presentations by health care providers and patients who have actually been using LDN for their diseases. It’s extremely well done.. and a site I think all who are asking questions about LDN should visit.

I also think the site is a good source of information that isn’t as easily or obviously available on the other sites.

But, all the links have information that I think is valuable – or I wouldn’t be listing them here.

There are several books on the market that talk about Low Dose Naltrexone. I’ve only read a couple of them so far. The one that I think is particularly well done is ‘The Promise of Low Dose NaltrexoneTherapy’.

You can buy it online at any of the major bookstores. It’s a little pricey,  but actually worth what they’re asking for it.

If you’re cash strapped you can find an online version of it here: .

But, if you can afford it I recommend buying it as a reference to show to your Physician, friends and family members… and to support the efforts of those who put so much effort into writing it.

OK, that’s all for now.. have to get to work.

Again, remember that I’m a Pharmacist… NOT a physician. We all have our areas of expertise. I’m providing information that you can take to your Physician to discuss and decide whether it is right for you. I believe in what I’m posting, but I also strongly believe in the fact that Pharmacists Pharmacist, Doctors Doctor, and Patients MUST help their Physicians understand the things that they aren’t aware of.

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN), Dr Bihari, And The Usefulness Of This Treatment For Autoimmune Diseases And Cancer

We talked about Dr Berkson’s use of low dose naltrexone and alpha-lipoic acid to treat autoimmune diseases and some cancers in a previous post, and the credit for integrating the two protocols undoubtedly goes to Dr Berkson. 

But, I don’t think I did justice to the use of low dose naltrexone by itself for the treatment of cancers and many different maladies and autoimmune disorders – or to the person who is credited with the discovery of the utility of low dose naltrexone – Dr Bernard Bihari, MD.

As far as I can tell, the gold standard web site on this topic is .

I won’t even try to provide the information and links you can find there. In fact, I’m still clicking and reading what is posted there myself.

You can read an interview with Dr Bihari at this web address – . There is some other useful information at this site.

I’m simply acting as a data integrator and provider in this post. In addition to the sites I’ve provided there are numerous sites discussing the utility of this treatment strategy for specific illnesses. Just do a web search and settle in for some facinating reading.

I am not an expert in any way, but I have developed a strong belief that low dose naltrexone is quite probably a valuable therapy that might work for some autoimmune and cancer patients. At the very least, it’s a treatment that appears to carry very little risk, is easy to try, and is extremely low cost – especially if you can get a pharmacist to teach you how to make your own capsules.

(Don’t try to make the capsules for yourself without some training. Uniformity of capsule content and dose per capsule is critically important for this application. If you screw it up the protocol won’t work. That said, it’s not hard to make the doses, you just need someone to show you how a pharmacist would do it.)

The major side effect that I’ve personally observed is sleep disruption or insomnia. I assure you this side effect is very real for some people.

As always, talk about this option with your Physician and educate him/her using the materials you can get to from this site to convince her/him to help you give it a try. Don’t start a new medicine or change your medication regimen without talking it over with your physician.

I’m a Pharmacist providing you information you might find useful. Your Physician is the person you must rely upon for deciding whether this information is applicable to you or not.

Heck, we all know I’m crazy as a loon!

Ancient Spices – Would YOU Wage A War For Something That Only Smelled Or Tasted Good?

From time to time my fellow pharmacists have to listen to me mull over ideas that are bouncing around in my mind in response to data I review.

Although I’ve talked to them about this topic quite awhile ago, I revisited it last night as we discussed the post I wrote recently about the use of Boswellia serrata (indian frankincense) to treat brain tumors.

Ths gist of my thoughts are summarized in this question:

If a substance’s only value was that it smelled or tasted good would it have 1. historically been more expensive than gold? 2. been incorporated into legends across multiple societies and religions as a gift to their most important religious and hero personages? 3. generated a demand that supported entire industries and elaborate distribution systems? or 4. caused multi-year wars?

You get my point?

Cinnamon, Pepper, Frankincense, Myrrh, Cloves…. I’m sure you can name more than I can think of off the top of my head, and with only one exception – salt – these spices were not critical to preserving foods.

In fact, if you dig through the materials published by the experts on the forgotten physicians and healers across the world and across all cultures, you will find that these agents were actually deriving their value from their usefulness as medicinal agents.

Frankincense has demonstrated capabilities for treating arthritis, asthma, and other inflammatory maladies for centuries. It is now also being seriously looked at by researchers as a therapy for some cancers.

Myrrh has also been used historically for the treatment of tumors and other maladies, and is more often as not a component of any herbal mixture that contains frankinsence. In fact, in at least one animal based study it has been reported to be as effective as a chemotherapy drug for the treatment of cancer.

And, interestingly enough, it is possible that a component of many spices – and a major component of extracts of marijuana – is also a powerful anti-inflammatory agent that might have utility for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

That substance is B-Caryophyllene, and it’s been shown to be a non-psychoactive cannabinoid receptor stimulator.

Found in high levels in cinnamon, pepper, cloves, many other spices and marijuana,  it is commonly used today as a food additive and spice. In fact, you can buy it in quantities larger than you would ever need if you really want to.

In animal studies it worked to strongly reduce inflammation at low concentrations, but not at high concentrations.  You can find a copy of the journal article detailing the study’s results here: .

I think this is interesting, as the major sources most people would encounter would always deliver low doses at the levels of ingestion that peoples’ cullinary practices would allow.

Is it possible that we’ve adapted our needs to what mother nature would normally deliver?

Even more interestingly, I suspect that B-Caryophyllene plays a very significant role in the medical utility of marijuana extracts.

So, maybe the ancients knew by observation what naturally occuring substances could be used to keep us healthy and cure our ills?

It’s something to think about, don’t you think?

Please pass the pepper.

Remember, I’m not a Physician – just a crazy pharmacist. You need to talk this information over with your physician.

Metastasis To The Brain? Breast Or Ovarian Cancer? Other Cancers? Read This.

As part of an effort to find a solution for a patient whose Ovarian Cancer had metastasized to her brain I reached out to a person who I believe has an extremely comprehensive and global knowledge of current and historical uses of herbal and non-traditional approaches for treating illnesses.

Her name is Ingrid Naiman.

She has many websites covering a multitude of topics, all of which I find interesting, and it is my understanding that she also has been granted multiple doctorate degrees.

When she speaks I listen very carefully, and I then try to translate what she has said into the language of the pharmacist so I can understand and use the information.

I asked her if she was aware of anything that had actually worked to help patients with Ovarian Cancer brain metastasis.

She replied with a comprehensive e-mail, but the bottom line can be found at this web address.

There she talks about the results of physicians’ and healers’ use of Boswellia serrata (indian frankincense) for the treatment of metastatic brain cancers.

She also provides a link to the website of a Physician who has experience with this application – Dr Dana Flavin-Koenig.

Dr Koenig had previously provided a link to a video interview with a patient who had had breast cancer metastasis to her brain, and who appeared to have had a complete remission after treatment with Boswellia extract capsules.

But, that link is no longer active.

However, the treatment parameters and results of this treatment were detailed in a journal article.

You can find a short excerpt from that article, and a link to the journal it was published in so you can buy a copy, at this location…. .

I’ve read the article, but don’t think it is worth buying for the general population.

The article defines the dose of Boswellia that the patients were taking. I have reviewed the article and my notes from a conversation with Dr Flavin-Koenig (she actually goes by Dr Flavin), and the most important thing to note is that the dosing is based on boswellic acid content, not total raw Boswellia powder. So, if you want to try it read the label carefully and adjust the number of capsules you take to achieve the same milligram dose of boswellic acids that the patient in the study took.

Look for the term ‘Standardized Extract’, and the highest boswellic acids content you can get.

I will warn you that the way the different companies express their products’ composition is extremely confusing. You can find some explanatory information at in particular, and at in general.

When asked, I have recommended these two products and three times a day with food doses. (two tablets three times a day) (four capsules three times a day)

I prefer the first product, it seems to upset the patients’ stomachs less, but remind you that these products’ contents are totally dependent on the integrity of the manufacturer. These two suppliers are believed to be reliable… but I can’t personally guarantee their contents.

I share this information because I am convinced that it might save the lives of patients. It will not work for all. But it seems to be a pretty low risk and high reward potential thing to try when the docs tell you there is nothing else they can do for you – or, before that time.

Just make sure that your physician knows what you’re doing and is involved in monitoring your physical health and well being. Do not try to go around your doctor’s advice and guidance, but make sure he/she is educated enough to provide guidance before you give up.

Doctors are people too, and they are hard pressed to keep up with the things deluging them in the mainstream, let alone what might be being proposed by crazy pharmacists and physicians who are trying to find alternative options that might help them extend their patients’ lives.

Remember, I’m as crazy as a loon. Just a Pharmacist, not a Physician. You should ALWAYS keep your physician involved in your medication regimen, and never change, stop or start a new medication without her/his knowledge and support.

Pharmacists Pharmacist, Physicians Physician, Oncologists Oncologist, and Cancer Patients pray for a breakthrough every night.

Catherine’s Protocol

 In April of 2009 a family member was diagnosed as having Stage IV Ovarian Cancer.

After reviewing the realities of the treatment outcomes for ovarian cancer patients, it became apparent to me that we absolutely did not know how to save the lives of the women who develop this cancer.

In response to that realization I began a search for options that might improve the probability of getting these patients into remission, and of keeping them there if remission was achieved.

The resulting protocol resulted from luck, synchronicity, and a lot of very hard work. It has evolved across time and has been debugged through actual implementation.

Although it might be useful as a standalone strategy, I must stress that it was designed to be used as an add on to the therapeutic options Oncologists normally use.

Let me repeat. This protocol is designed to be integrated into your Oncologist’s regular treatment protocol, and as such – you must work with your Oncologist to make sure there are no interferences between what he/she is trying to achieve and the elements of this protocol.

I have been reluctant to publish this protocol because I do not want to propose things to you that I do not feel I can absolutely defend.

I am now as convinced as I can be within the time that has elapsed that this protocol might be useful for achieving remission and prolonging the time of remission for Ovarian Cancer and Breast Cancer patients, and am – in fact – hopeful that it would be useful for many other cancer types.

Although elements of the protocol may help slow the progression and/or metastasis of breast and ovarian cancer tumors that have migrated to the brain, it will NOT stop them once they are lodged on the brain side of the blood brain barrier.

I have posted copies of documents that define the protocol below. Clicking on the red links will bring up a copy of one of two different documents that have been written for physicians and pharmacists about this protocol.



The trickiest part of implementing them is the timing of using the protocol vs chemotherapy and radiation treatments and the calculation of the target salsalate dose.

If your physician would like to try this protocol please have her/him e-mail me and I will help them calculate a target salsalate dose for you. If you don’t have access to salsalate, aspirin could be used – but it is much more dangerous and the doses and dose timing are different than those for salsalate. I have thought about this often, and would be willing to share my thoughts and dosing calculations with your physician if salsalate is not available. ( )

Other details (e.g. how to mix and administer the ginger extract drink) can be found elsewhere in this blog. Please note that it is taken three times a day.

Yes, I have been trying to leave hints as time has passed.

This is a first pass at documenting this protocol on this blog, and I will be coming back to edit it and clarify the protocol.

In reply to those who believe it crazy, I can only say this.. read the literature that details the life expectancy and mortality rates for Stage III and Stage IV Ovarian and Breast Cancer patients. They document the state of the art for saving these patients’ lives. I submit for your consideration that anything I propose will have as good a track record as the current standards of care.

I do not guarantee anything except the fact that I have put my best effort into defining this protocol, and that I believe it has a good probability of helping.

It is most probable that your Oncologist will be reluctant to consider implementing this protocol into his/her treatment plan. There are many reasons for this, and it might be helpful to suggest a team approach that enlists your personal physician to manage the elements your oncologist does not feel comfortable dealing with.

As always, I am a pharmacist. Not a physician, and definately not an expert in oncology. You MUST seek the guidance of your physician before attempting to implement this protocol. Although the substances seem common place, I assure you that their effects are quite real and they can be dangerous if they are not properly implemented.

Pharmacists Pharmacist, Physicians Physician, Oncologists Oncologist, and Cancer Patients pray for a breakthrough every night.

I hope this information will be helpful to you.

Cancer Treatment Using Low Dose Naltrexone and Alpha-Lipoic Acid

Naltrexone is a drug that blocks the cellular receptors that are accessed by opioid pain medicines (morphine, vicodin, percocet, etc…), and it is usually used at a dose of 50mg per tablet for treating several substance abuse problems.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid is an antioxidant nutraceutical supplement that is claimed to be capable of upregulating metabolism, reversing cellular damage, and many other effects.

Most interesting to me is the claim that a protocol called ‘Low Dose Naltrexone’ or “LDN’ can be used to treat several cancer types, and that combining it with Alpha-Lipoic Acid enhances its effectiveness. For this application the naltrexone is given at a strength of 1.5mg to 4.5mg (most often 3mg) every night at bedtime.

Based on my findings so far I must say that I am now a believer.

After casting around for evidence that these claims might actually have merit I stumbled across conference presentations by Burt Berkson, MD that show the results of using LDN and Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the treatment of cancer and various autoimmune diseases.

I have pasted copies of links to various video and audio presentations about Dr Berkson’s work below for your review.

A link to an interview with the m.d. who presented in the videos here:

He talks about details and history of his involvement with lipoic acid.

Fascinating presentation of clinical data from physician who practices an integrative health clinic in new mexico. 3rd video link is to a pharmacist telling her story about using low dose naltrexone for multiple sclerosis… (Berkson – MD)  (Berkson – MD)  (Pharmacist and data) 

You can find detailed info for Alpha-Lipoic Acid at this Wikipedia link –

Proposed Mechanisms For Aspirin and Other NSAIDs Reduction of Cancer Risk

This post will be short.

Every once in awhile I come across a journal article that I feel establishes a new reference point for understanding of a phenomenon.

This article is one of those them – , and you can get a copy of it for free.

It is a review article, and pulls together a lot of other teams’ research results to support their proposal of two paths through which COX-2 enzyme pathways and the P53 tumor suppressor protein might interact to allow or prevent cancer occurence. It also discusses how the NSAIDs, aspirin, and COX2 Inhibitors might impact these two pathways to lower cancer risk.

The reference for the article is:

Emanuela de Moraes, Nazir Ahmad Dar, Claudia Vitoria de Moura Gallo, and Pierre Hainaut. 2007. Cross-talks between cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor suppressor protein p53: Balancing life and death during inflammatory stress and carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer: 121, 929-937.

The reading is a little challenging if you’re not a pharmacist, scientist, etc… but… I think lots of people might find it interesting anyway.